Ontologies Classes Object Properties Data Properties Annotation Properties Individuals Datatypes Clouds

Annotation Property: rdfs:comment

Usage (336)

  • Adjunct rdfs:comment "Optional or secondary grammatical unit that may be removed without the structural identity of the rest of the construction being affected.
  • Aktionsart rdfs:comment "verb aspect; situation aspect; lexical aspect" @en 
  • 'Allocutivity feature' rdfs:comment "Verb agreement with Nonarguments

    "Allocutivity refers to the encoding in the conjugated verb form of an addressee that is not an argument of the verb. Allocutivity is obligatory in Basque main clauses when the addressee is given familiar treatment." (Hualde & Ortiz de Urbina 2003:242)
    Hualde, J. & Ortiz de Urbina, J. (eds.) (2003). A grammar of Basque. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter."
  • 'Aspect feature' rdfs:comment "viewpoint aspect; grammatical aspect" @en 
  • 'Complex segment' rdfs:comment "Also: contour segment" @en 
  • 'Creole or pidgin' rdfs:comment "Recent research has shown that the strict separation of pidgins and creoles which was part of our scholarly heritage cannot be maintained. For some time now it has been known that having native speakers is not criterial for the distinction. ‘Expanded’ stabilized pidgins are very often undistinguishable from creoles and natural languages in general.

    Pidgins and creoles form a group in their own right, tied by a special relationship not shared with languages outside the group."
  • 'Karluk Turkic' rdfs:comment "also: Southeastern Turkic or Uyghur Turkic" @en 
  • 'Kipchak Turkic' rdfs:comment "also: Northwestern Turkic" @en 
  • 'Logophoric pronoun' rdfs:comment "Cross-linguistic characterization of logophoric pronouns after Clements (1975):
    "(i) logophoric pronouns are restricted to reportive contexts transmitting the words or thoughts of an individual or individuals other than the speaker/ narrator;
    (ii) the antecedent does not occur in the same reportive context as the logophoric pronoun;
    (iii) the antecedent designates the individual or individuals whose words or thoughts are transmitted in the reported context in which the logophoric pronoun occurs." (Clements 1975: 171-172)
    Clements, G. (1975). The logophoric pronoun in Ewe: Its role in discourse. Journal of West African Languages, 10, 141-177."
  • 'Oghuz Turkic' rdfs:comment "also: Southwestern Turkic" @en 
  • Parasynthesis rdfs:comment "1. Derivation from a compound or syntactic sequence.
    An example is the formation of red-faced from red face + -ed.
    2. The process of simultaneous multiple affixation. Also called circumfixation.
    e.g. decaffeinate
    Aarts, B. (2014). Parasynthesis. In B. Aarts (Ed.),The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199658237.001.0001/acref-9780199658237-e-1033?rskey=CnWAH3&result=1"
  • Possession rdfs:comment "Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).

    "Linguistic POSSESSION consists of the representation of a relationship between a substance and another substance. Substance A, called the POSSESSOR, is prototypically [+animate], more specifically [+human], and still more specifically [+EGO] or close to the speaker." (Seiler 1983:4)

    Seiler, H. (1983). Possession as an operational dimension of language. Tübingen: Gunter Narr."
  • 'Segment sequence' rdfs:comment "Also: cluster" @en 
  • 'Serial verb construction' rdfs:comment ""In the study of serial verb constructions, several criteria are implicitly used […]. Generally they amount to something like the following. A serial verb construction contains two verbs which have:
    (5) a. only one grammatical;
    b. at most one grammatical object;
    c. one specification for tense/aspect:
    - often only ob the first verb;
    - sometimes on both verbs, but agreeing in the specification given;
    - sometimes only on the second verb;
    d. only one possible negator;
    e. no intervening coordinating conjunction;
    f. no intervening subordinating conjunction;
    g. no intervening pause." (Muysken & Veenstra 2006:237/238)

    Muysken, P. & Veenstra, T. (2006). Serial verbs. In M. Everaert & H. van Riemsdijk (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Syntax (Vol. IV) (pp. 234-270). Malden, MA/ Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing."
  • 'Set phrase' rdfs:comment "The term "set phrase" is used here in a broader sense, as a synonym of phraseological unit (a cover term for idiom, collocation, proverb, etc.)" 
  • 'Siberian Turkic' rdfs:comment "also: Northeastern Turkic" @en 
  • Tsouic rdfs:comment "Also: Cenral Formosan" @en 
  • 'Voice feature' rdfs:comment "Diathesis" @en 
  • Yanyi rdfs:comment "Also: Garrwan" @en 
  • 'Zone A' rdfs:comment "Location: Southern Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Northern Gabon" @en 
  • 'Zone B' rdfs:comment "Location: Southern Gabon, Western Congo, Western DR-Congo" @en 
  • 'Zone C' rdfs:comment "Location: Northeastern DR-Congo, Northern Congo" @en 
  • 'Zone D' rdfs:comment "Location: Northeastern DR-Congo" @en 
  • 'Zone E' rdfs:comment "Location: Kenya, apart of Swahili" @en 
  • 'Zone F' rdfs:comment "Location: Western and Central Tanzania" @en 
  • 'Zone G' rdfs:comment "Location: Eastern Tanzania, Comoros" @en 
  • 'Zone H' rdfs:comment "Location: Northwestern Angola, Western Congo" @en 
  • 'Zone K' rdfs:comment "Location: Eastern Angola, Western Zambia" @en 
  • 'Zone L' rdfs:comment "Location: Southern DR-Congo, Central Zambia" @en 
  • 'Zone M' rdfs:comment "Location: Eastern Zambia, Southeastern DR-Congo" @en 
  • 'Zone N' rdfs:comment "Location: Malawi and surrounding areas, Central Mozambique" @en 
  • 'Zone P' rdfs:comment "Location: Northeastern Mozambique, SoutheasternTanzania" @en 
  • 'Zone R' rdfs:comment "Location: Southwestern Angola, Northern Namibia, Northern Botswana" @en 
  • 'Zone S' rdfs:comment "Location: South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Southern Mozambique" @en 
  • 'English in Ireland' rdfs:comment "Also: Hiberno-English" @en 
  • Romance rdfs:comment "„Aufgrund der spezifischen Entwicklung der romanischen Sprachen aus regionalen Varianten des Sprechlateins, die zumindest vor dem Zusammenbruch des Römischen Reiches im ständigen Austausch miteinander standen, ist eine strenge genetische Gliederung des Romanischen prinzipiell nicht möglich(…). Eine interne Gliederung des Romanischen wird also letztlich immer eine starke areale Komponente besitzen, dabei sind die jeweiligen Substrate, Superstrate und Adstrate von großer Bedeutung.“(Kausen 2010:237)

    Kausen, Ernst (2010). Die indogermanischen Sprachen von der Vorgeschichte bis zur Gegenwart. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag."
  • Romanian rdfs:comment "The term Romanian is used here in a more general sense meaning Balkan Romance. The Term Daco-Romanian is used for the Romanian proper." @en 
  • Onomatopoeia rdfs:comment "Also: sound-symbolic word" @en 
  • Suprasegmentalia rdfs:comment "Prosodic phenomena" @en 
  • 'Aktionsart (morph.)' rdfs:comment "lexical aspect" 
  • 'Individual words' rdfs:comment "Within the Bibliography of Linguistic Literature this subject term is used to index publications concerned with differrent aspects of single words, e.g., the articles "Children's knowledge of scale in the acquisition of "almost"(Amaral, P. M. 2013)" or "Vom "kriegen" und "bekommen" (Lenz, A. N. 2013)"." @en 
  • 'Fixed expression' rdfs:comment "Within the BLL Thesaurus this subject term is used in a way similar to "phraseological unit" (set phrase; expression figée)" @en 
  • 'Negation (synt.)' rdfs:comment "The process of converting affirmative to negative is called negation – the grammatical rules for negation vary from language to language, and a given language may have more than one way of producing negations.
  • 'Absolute construction' rdfs:comment ""Nonfinite and verbless adverbial clauses that have an overt subject but are not introduced by a subordinator and are not the complement of a preposition are ABSOLUTE clauses, so termed because they are not explicitly bound to the matrix clause syntactically." (Quirk et al. 1985:1120)
    Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London and New York: Longman.

    Paul stood smiling in the doorway, [his legs wide apart]."
  • 'Inclusive imperative' rdfs:comment "hortative; inclusive let-imperative" 
  • 'Chaga languages' rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E62" @en 
  • Herero rdfs:comment "Guthrie: R31" @en 
  • Guosa rdfs:comment "Guosa is a zonal constructed language originally created by Alex Igbineweka in 1965. It was designed to be a combination of the indigenous languages of Nigeria and to serve as a lingua franca to West Africa.

  • Aorist rdfs:comment "Aorist verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events." @en 
  • Apheresis rdfs:comment "Initial unstressed vowel deletion, in speech and as word formation mechanism." @en 
  • Apocope rdfs:comment "Elision of one or more sounds from the end of a word." @en 
  • Arawak rdfs:comment "Die Klassifikation basiert auf dem Vorschlag von Campbell (2012:74-77).

    Campbell, L. (2012). Classification of the indigenous languages of South America. In L. Campbell & V. Grondona (eds.), The Indigenous Languages of South America (pp. 59-166). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter."
  • Chileno rdfs:comment "Chileno is a poorly attested Spanish-based pidgin known to have been used among Native American groups in northern and central California.

    Bartelt, G. (1992). Chileno: a maritime pidgin among California Indians. California linguistic notes, 23 (2), 25-28."
  • Archiphoneme rdfs:comment "The concept of the archiphoneme was introduced by Roman Jakobson in 1929. He defined the archiphoneme as the common core of two phonemes within a correlative pair." @en 
  • Aspirate rdfs:comment "Also: spread glottis" @en 
  • 'Slant rhyme' rdfs:comment ""Vorform des Reims, bei der nur die Vokale von der letzten Tonsilbe an übereinstimmen (männl. Bad /Tag, weibl.: Suppe/hundert), ersetzte in der vokalreichen span. Dichtung zeitweise den Endreim. Im altfranz. Heldenepos Mittel der Verszusammenfassung." (Vollers-Sauer 2010:65)
    Vollers-Sauer, E. (2010). Assonanz. In H. Glück (Ed.), Metzler Lexikon Sprache (4th ed. rev.)(pp. 65). Stuttgart/Weimar: J.B.Metzler."
  • Neonymy rdfs:comment "Neologisms of specialized and terminological languages." @en 
  • Xhosa rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S41" @en 
  • Gerundive rdfs:comment "Gerundive (/dʒɛrˈʌndɪv/) is a term in Latin grammar for a verb form which functions as an adjective. Traditionally, the term has been applied to verbal adjectives and nouns in other languages.

    In Classical Latin the gerundive is distinct in form and function from the gerund and the present active participle. In Late Latin these differences were largely lost, resulting in a form derived from the gerund or gerundive but functioning more like a participle. This adjectival gerundive form survives in the formation of progressive aspect forms in Italian, Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese. In French the adjectival gerundive and particle forms merged completely, and the term gérondif is used for adverbial use of -ant forms.

    There is no true equivalent to the gerundive in English; the closest translation is a passive to-infinitive non-finite clause such as books to be read. This reflects the most common use of the Latin gerundive: combining a transitive verb (such as read) and its object (such as books), usually with a sense of obligation.
  • Bahuvrīhi rdfs:comment "Possessive compounds (also: bahuvrihi or exocentric) "have the same structure as determinative compounds but are used exocentrically to name an entity possessing the attribute they express: Greybeard literally refers to a 'grey beard' but denotes in its possessive reading something (a seal) having a 'grey beard'." (Olsen 2000:908)
    Olsen, S. (2000). Composition. In G. E.Booij, Ch. Lehmann, J. Mugdan, (Eds.), Morphology: An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation (pp. 897-916). Berlin: de Gruyter."
  • 'Baltic German' rdfs:comment "Als baltisches Deutsch oder Baltendeutsch wird in der Sprachwissenschaft das Idiom der deutschsprachigen Minderheit in Lettland und Estland vor allem aus der Zeit vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg bezeichnet.

  • 'Bantu languages' rdfs:comment "The Narrow Bantu languages are conventionally divided into geographic zones.
    The implemented subgrouping is based on the latest version of Guthrie’s classification (1971) and the update made by Maho in 2003. Maho added ca. 200 language / dialect codes which are compatible with the original coding system.
    The classification is strictly referential.

  • 'Participial relative' rdfs:comment ""The Participial relative construction in Modern Hebrew and Standard Arabic is a construction whose most typical function is that of a noun modifier. In this the participial relative construction is similar to standard relative clauses (as well as simple APs)." (Hazout 2001:97)
    Hazout, I. (2001). Predicate formation: the case of participle relatives. The linguistic review, 18 (2), 97-123."
  • 'Expletive negation' rdfs:comment "The term expletive negation is often used (especially in the linguistics of the Romance languages) for a negative marker that has no negative meaning.


    French: Je crains qu'elle ne vient 'I fear that she comes';
    Italian: Io sono più alto che tu non sei 'I am taller than you are'
    English: We don't need no education. (Pink Floyd song)

    (also: pleonastic / paratactic /abusive negation)
  • Epicene rdfs:comment "In linguistics, the adjective epicene is used to describe a word that has only one form for both male and female referents.
  • Inflective rdfs:comment ""Secondary interjections quite often appear in the form of an “inflective”, a non-conventional inflection form mostly found in comics or sms/chat communication. In German and English, the inflective corresponds to the bare verb stem, e.g., seufz, gähn, derived from the verbs seufzen and gähnen, or the respective English items sigh, cough derived from to sigh and to cough." (Foster et al. 2012:124)
    Forster, I., Borgwaldt, S. R., & Neef, M. (2012). Form follows function: Interjections and onomatopoetica in comics. Writing System Research, 4 (2), 122-139."
  • Rendaku rdfs:comment "Rendaku (lit. "sequential voicing") is a phenomenon in Japanese morphophonology that governs the voicing of the initial consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word.
  • 'Binominal noun phrase' rdfs:comment "Including binominal quantifiers and pseudo-partitives (grammaticalized partitives).
    Example (German):
    ein Baum von einem Mann"
  • Breaking rdfs:comment ""Bezeichnung von Jacob Grimm, die sich in der traditionellen Terminologie der Vergleichenden Sprachwissenschaft auf unterschiedliche assimilatorische Vokalveränderungen bezieht, so etwa im Gotischen die Senkung von i, u zu e, o vor folgenden r und h (Angleichung an der tiefen Zungenstellung der Konsonanten), im Altisländ. die Diphthongierung von e zu ia, io vor a bzw. u in der Folgesilbe) und von a zu ea (vor r, l, h + Konsonant bzw. vor einfachem h), im Ahd. die assimilatorische Senkung hoher Vokale vor nicht-hohen Vokalen in der Folgesilbe -> Umlaut. Heute versteht man unter Brechung im Allgemeinen lediglich die Diphthongierungen." (Bußmann 2002:130)
    Bußmannn, H. (Ed.)(2002). Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft (3rd ed. rev.). Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag."
  • HiBena rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G63" @en 
  • Confix rdfs:comment ""Bezeichnung für in der Regel entlehnte Morpheme wie geo-, thermo-, -loge, -stat, die mit den Affixen das Merkmal der Gebundenheit teilen und mit den Grundmorphemen das Merkmal, Träger lexikalischer Bedeutung zu sein." (Eins 2010:350)
    Eins, W. (2010). Konfix. In H. Glück (Ed.), Metzler Lexikon Sprache (4th ed. rev.)(pp. 350). Stuttgart/Weimar: J.B.Metzler."
  • 'Rwanda (language)' rdfs:comment "Guthrie: D61" @en 
  • Setswana rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S31" @en 
  • Ganda rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E15" @en 
  • Kongo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: H16" @en 
  • Chichewa rdfs:comment "Guthrie: N31b" @en 
  • siSwati rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S43" @en 
  • 'Anaphora, donkey anaphora' rdfs:comment "E-type anaphora" 
  • 'Cognate object' rdfs:comment "In linguistics, a cognate object (or cognate accusative) is a verb's object that is etymologically related to the verb. More specifically, the verb is one that is ordinarily intransitive (lacking any object), and the cognate object is simply the verb's noun form. For example, in the sentence He slept a troubled sleep, sleep is the cognate object of the verb slept.
  • Rundi rdfs:comment "Guthrie: D62" @en 
  • Xitsonga rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S53" @en 
  • 'Sequence of tenses' rdfs:comment "Sequence of tenses (known in Latin as consecutio temporum, and also known as agreement of tenses, succession of tenses and tense harmony) is a set of grammatical rules of a particular language, governing the agreement between the tenses of verbs in related clauses or sentences.
  • 'Dativus commodi' rdfs:comment "Dative of benefit, advantage" 
  • Demonstrativum rdfs:comment "A demonstrative is a determiner that is used deictically to indicate a referent's spatial, temporal, or discourse location.
  • Medjime rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A86a" @en 
  • 'Negative polarity items' rdfs:comment "An expression that occurs in the scope of Negation (i.e. Negative Polarity)." @en 
  • Kinande rdfs:comment "Guthrie: D42" @en 
  • 'Verba ablativa' rdfs:comment "Also: verbs of removal" @en 
  • Converb rdfs:comment "A converb is a nonfinite verb form whose main function is to mark adverbial subordination. It is part of the inflectional paradigm of verbs, lacks specifications for tense (-aspect) and mood as well as for agreement, and generally modifies verbs, clauses or sentences, but not nouns or noun phrases.
    Haspelmath, M. (1995). The converb as a cross-linguistically valid category. In M. Haspelmath & E. König (Eds.), Converbs in Cross-Linguistic Perspective (pp. 1-55). Berlin/ New York: de Greuyter."
  • 'Double negation' rdfs:comment "Also: negative concord" @en 
  • Zulu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S42" @en 
  • 'Adverbial adjective' rdfs:comment "Adjectives with an adverbial function.
    Maria me habla claro.
    Ils discutent agressif."
  • Elative rdfs:comment "Absolute superlative" 
  • 'Quirky case' rdfs:comment ""The marking of subjects and objects with case other than the expected ones, e.g., dative, genitive and accusative subjects, and dative and genitive objects." (Van Valin 1991:145)
    Van Valin, R. D. (1991). Another look at Icelandic case marking and grammatical relations. Natural Languages & Linguistic Theory, 9(1), 145-194."
  • 'Objectless clause' rdfs:comment "null object, object drop" 
  • Epithesis rdfs:comment ""Anfügung eines etymologisch nicht motivierten Lautes an ein Wort, vgl. mhd. nieman vs. niemand, frz. (vin) sec vs. dt. Sekt." (Bußmann 2002:196)
    Bußmannn, H. (Ed.)(2002). Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft (3rd ed. rev.). Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag."
  • Eponym rdfs:comment ""Auf einem Eigennamen beruhendes Wort, z.B. Apellativa wie Zeppelin, Benzin, Verben wie nachdieseln, einwecken, pasteurisieren." (Glück 2010:181)
    Glück, H. (2010). Eponym. In H. Glück (Ed.), Metzler Lexikon Sprache (4th ed. rev.) (pp. 181). Stuttgart/Weimar: J.B.Metzler."
  • 'Pseudo-relative clause' rdfs:comment ""Pseudo Relatives and RCs are string identical, yet their syntactic and semantic properties differ drastically.
    (4) a. Ho visto [SC Gianni [che correva]] / He visto a Juan que corria / J’ai vu Jean qui courait
    b. *I saw John that ran
    c. I saw John running
    Semantically, RCs denote individuals, and PRs propositions. Syntactically, the differences are extremely clear, among others:
    i. PRs, but obviously not RCs, are only available with embedded subjects (*Ho visto Gianni che Maria baciava EC / I saw Gianni that Maria kissed EC);
    ii. PRs are subject to strict restrictions in Tense and Aspect restrictions: if I perceive an event, that event has to happen/unfold within the same temporal window of the perception. Therefore PRs have to match the Tense expressed in the matrix verb (5a,b) and have to occur in the imperfective form; the
    perfective would describe a completed event, which is not compatible with direct perception (compare also the use of gerundive in English, Spanish,
    Brazilian Portuguese and many other languages):
    (5) a. *Ho visto Gianni che correrà / I saw that Gianni that will run
    b. *Ho visto Gianni che è corso a casa / I saw Gianni that ran home
    iii. PR occur with che/que/qui but not with genuine Relative Pronouns (*Ho visto Gianni il quale correva), which are restricted to RCs; PRs, but not RCs are available with proper names." (Grillo 2012:234/235)

    Grillo, N. (2012). Local and Universal. In V. Bianchi and C. Chesi (Eds.), Enjoy Linguistics. Papers offered to Luigi Rizzi on the occasion of his 60th birthday (pp. 234-245). CISCL Press."
  • Percussive rdfs:comment "„Percussive as a manner of articulation is considered separate from, for example, the tap or flap category in that the former requires a much harder striking together of the articulators, as the sound produced is mainly derived from this striking action” (Ball 1998: 95)
    The extIPA system (extended symbols to the IPA for the transcription of disordered speech) recognizes tree types of percussives: bidental percussive; bilabial percussive and sublaminal percussive. (Ball, 1998)
    Ball, M. J. (1998). On percussives. International Phonetic Association: Journal of International Phonetic Association, 28 (1-2), 95-98."
  • 'Cariban languages' rdfs:comment "Die Klassifikation basiert auf dem Vorschlag von Gildea (2012:445).

    Gildea, Spike. (2012). Linguistic studies in the Cariban family. In L. Campbell & V. Gordona (eds.), The Indigenous Languages of South America (pp. 441-494). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter."
  • 'Existential sentence' rdfs:comment ""A construction used to assert the (non-) existence of some entity or entities. In English the classic construction begins with 'there': 'There's a policeman at the door.'"(Brown & Miller 2013: 161)
    Brown, K., & Miller, J. (2013). The Cambridge Dictionary of Linguistics. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press."
  • Papuan rdfs:comment "Die Papua-Sprachen bilden keine genetische Einheit. Sie gliedern sich in etwa drei Dutzend unabhängige Familien sehr unterschiedlicher Größe sowie etwa zwei Dutzend Isolate." @de 
  • 'Indo-Arian languages' rdfs:comment "Die Klassifikation basiert auf dem Vorschlag von Glottolog [Stand: 13.12.2019].

  • 'Paleoasiatic languages' rdfs:comment "Paleosiberian (or Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian (Paleo-Asiatic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, "ancient") are terms of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of linguistic isolates as well as a few small families of languages spoken in parts both of northeastern Siberia and of the Russian Far East.

  • 'Iranian languages' rdfs:comment "Die Klassifikation basiert auf dem Vorschlag von Ethnologue (22nd Edition).

    Eberhard, David M., Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2019. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Twenty-second edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com"
  • Fuzhouhua rdfs:comment "Also: Min Dong Chinese, Foochow" @en 
  • Ndendeule rdfs:comment "Guthrie: N101" @en 
  • Sorothaptic rdfs:comment "Sorothaptic (Spanish: sorotáptico, Catalan: sorotàptic, from Greek σορός sorós 'funerary urn' and θαπτός thaptós 'buried') is a name coined by Catalan scholar Joan Coromines for the hypothetical language of the presumably Indo-European, but pre-Celtic, Bronze Age people of the Urnfield culture in the Iberian Peninsula.

  • 'Free relative' rdfs:comment ""Free Relatives (FRs) are constructions that share the essentials of core relative sentences but have no lexical antecedent (i.e. they are headless) and are subject to a matching condition which forces the relative operator to satisfy the selectional restrictions of both the matrix and the embedded verb." (Oleja 2011:119)
    Oleja, A. (2011). On Mixed Categories: The Case of Free Relatives. SKY Journal of Linguistics, 24, 119-143."
  • Ronga rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S54" @en 
  • Comorian rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G44" @en 
  • Phende rdfs:comment "Guthrie: L11" @en 
  • Bafia rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A53" @en 
  • Kikuyu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E51" @en 
  • Hendo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: C82" @en 
  • Ruund rdfs:comment "Guthrie: L53" @en 
  • Venda rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S21" @en 
  • Benoni rdfs:comment "Hebrew-specific category (benoni = 'intermediate') that serves to express both immediate and extended Present as well as participial functions.
    Berman, R. A. (1978). Modern Hebrew Structure. Tel Aviv : University Publishing Projects."
  • 'Complex predicate' rdfs:comment "Complex predicates include serial verb constructions, auxiliary constructions and periphrastic constructions." @en 
  • 'Garden-path sentence' rdfs:comment "E.g.: Fruit flies like a banana.
  • 'Bound root' rdfs:comment "A bound root is a root which cannot occur as a separate word apart from any other morpheme.
  • Trentino rdfs:comment "Im Gegensatz zu Südtirol wird im Trentino großteils Italienisch bzw. ein italienischer Mischdialekt gesprochen. Einen einheitlichen Trentiner Dialekt gibt es nicht. Im Westen sind lombardische Einflüsse bemerkbar, im Osten, insbesondere in der Region Primiero und im unteren Suganertal, werden venetische Dialekte gesprochen. Dazwischen liegt ein sprachliches Übergangsgebiet, in dem auch Trient liegt; dieser Trentiner Dialekt wird ebenfalls am stärksten vom Venetischen beeinflusst. Vereinzelt kommen im Trentiner Dialekt auch vom Deutschen bzw. Bairischen abgeleitete Wörter vor.

  • 'Adjective, collateral' rdfs:comment "A collateral adjective is an adjective that is identified with a particular noun in meaning, but that is not derived from that noun. For example, the word bovine is considered the adjectival equivalent of the noun cow, but it is derived from a different word, which happens to be the Latin word for "cow".
  • Mituku rdfs:comment "Guthrie: D13" @en 
  • 'Objective genitive' rdfs:comment "Objective genitive" @en 
  • 'Gender assignment' rdfs:comment ""The principles by which nouns are allotted to different genders can be governed by semantics, or formal morphological or phonological properties of a noun, or a combination of these. In a sense all systems of gender assignment are mixed, since there is always a semantic core which involves universal semantic parameters such as sex, humanness and animacy." (Aikhenvald 2004:1035)
    Aikhenvald, A. (2004). Gender and noun class. In G. E.Booij, Ch. Lehmann, J. Mugdan, (Eds.), Morphology: An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation (pp.1031-1045). Berlin: de Gruyter."
  • 'Fang (Equatorial Guinea)' rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A75" @en 
  • Injunctive rdfs:comment "Term in Indo-European linguistics for the use of forms based on the stem of the indicative in orders and prohibitions. Attested mainly in Indo-Iranian.
    Matthews, P. H. (2014). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199675128.001.0001/acref-9780199675128-e-1638?rskey=ZcR4W0&result=1"
  • get-passive rdfs:comment "Auch: bekommen-Passiv" @de 
  • 'Determinative compound' rdfs:comment "The grammatical head of the determinative compound functions also as its semantic head which is modified by the other constituent so that e.g. business district is a 'district' in some sense restricted by the notion 'business'.
    Olsen, S. (2000). Composition. In G. E.Booij, Ch. Lehmann, J. Mugdan, (Eds.), Morphology: An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation (pp. 897-916). Berlin: de Gruyter."
  • Ndebele rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S44" @en 
  • Glissando rdfs:comment ""Phonation accompanied by a monotonic increase (or decrease) of pitch within a time range of several seconds is called glissando." (Hoppe et al. 2003:370)
    Hoppe, U., Rosanowski, F., Döllinger, M., Lohscheller, J., Schuster, M., Eysholdt, U. (2003). Glissando: laryngeal motorics and acoustics. Journal of Voice, 17 (3), 370-379."
  • Laadi rdfs:comment "Guthrie: H16f" @en 
  • 'Medieval Greek' rdfs:comment "Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

  • Digo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E73" @en 
  • Mwani rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G403" @en 
  • 'h aspiré' rdfs:comment "“There are two categories of words beginning with h in French; words beginning with mute h and words beginning with the so-called aspirated h usually referred to as h aspiré in the literature. Learners of French are usually told that the existence of the two classes is due to the origin of the words. Mute h words are believed to come from Latin while h aspiré words are traditionally attributed to Germanic languages where h was and still is aspirated. (…)
    In most dialects of French, h aspire has no phonetic realization. It apparently lost its aspiration by the 16th century. This loss of aspiration resulted in the lack of phonetic distinction between mute h words and h aspiré words. They both begin with a vowel. However, a difference exists on the phonological level.” (Moisset 1996:223)
    Moisset, C. (1996). The Status of 'h aspire' in French today. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 3 (1), 223-236."
  • Kukwa rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B77a" @en 
  • Wh-infinitive rdfs:comment "Wh-root infinitivals such as

    Wohin gehen?
    'Where (should one/we) go?'"
  • Gheada rdfs:comment "“The phonetic-phonological phenomenon known as gheada (or geada), characteristic of a large portion of the Galician territory, consists of the absence of the voiced velar phoneme /g/ characteristic of standard Galician. It is replaced by an aspirated phoneme /ħ/ of predominantly voiceless pharyngeal articulation, although it can also take the form of voiced pharyngeal, voiced or voiceless uvular or laryngeal, and the voiceless velar fricative [x], coinciding with the production of the phoneme /x/ of standard Spanish, which in this language is opposed to /g/ on account of its voiceless nature.” (Recalde 2002-2003:44)
    Recalde, M. (2002-2003). The Castilianist theory of the origin of the ghaeda revisited. Estudios de Sociolingüística, 3(2) & 4(1), 43-74."
  • Yambasa rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A62" @en 
  • 'Bare phrase' rdfs:comment "A NP with an empty determiner position (also: bare nominals)" @en 
  • Jussive rdfs:comment "Jussive mood is a directive mood that signals a speaker's command, permission, or agreement that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance be brought about.
  • 'Plural, associative' rdfs:comment ""Der assoziative Plural (auch cohort plural) kodiert wie der kollektive Plural eine Menge von Referenten, zeichnet sich aber dadurch aus, daß nur ein salienter Referent aus der Menge im Ausdruck vorkommt." (Iturrioz-Leza & Skopeteas 2004:1057)
    Iturrioz-Leza, J. L., & Skopeteas, S. (2004). Numerus. In G. E.Booij, Ch. Lehmann, J. Mugdan, (Eds.), Morphology: An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation (pp. 1053-1066). Berlin: de Gruyter."
  • Bemba rdfs:comment "Guthrie: M42" @en 
  • Nyanja rdfs:comment "Guthrie: N31a" @en 
  • Pseudo-imperative rdfs:comment ""The "pseudo-imperatives" in question are conjunctions or disjunctions of an imperative and a declarative clause, and they are illustrated in (1)-(4):

    (1) Come closer and I'll give you five pounds.
    (2) Be off or I'll push you downstairs.
    (3) Come one step closer and I'll shoot.
    (4) Open the Guardian and you'll find three misprints on every page.

    They seem to have the sense of conditionals and it has been suggested that they are synonymous with, or derived from the same underlying string as, conditionals. The analysis proposed below suggests that the main reason they have been called "pseudo-imperatives" is not because they are significantly different from other imperatives but rather because they cannot be accounted for as imperatives by most semantic theories." (Clark 1993:79)

    Clark. B. (1993). Relevance and “Pseudo-Imperatives”. Linguistics and Philosophy, 16(1), 79-121."
  • Yeye rdfs:comment "Guthrie: R41" @en 
  • Ma'a rdfs:comment "Mbugu, or Ma’a, is a mixed language of Tanzania.

  • Equative rdfs:comment ""A comparison of equality is one that ascribes to the comparee the same value of the parameter of comparison as to the standard. If it is marked formally on the predicate representing the parameter - typically, an adjective - this is called the equative form" (Cuzzolin & Lehmann 2004:1212/1213)
    Cuzzolin, P. & Lehmann, Ch. (2004). Comparison and gradation. In G. E.Booij, Ch. Lehmann, J. Mugdan, (Eds.), Morphology: An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation (pp. 1212-1220). Berlin: de Gruyter."
  • Indeclinable rdfs:comment "For example, indeclinable borrowings in the Russian language (taksi, iglu, metro).
    Indeclinable nouns, adjectives, clips, acronyms, nouns in apposition.
    Also indeclinable indefinite pronouns, e.g. German "etwas", "irgendetwas", "nichts"."
  • 'Northern Sotho' rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S32" @en 
  • 'Asu (Tanzania)' rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G22" @en 
  • Baining rdfs:comment "Also: East New Britain" @en 
  • Euphony rdfs:comment ""Eigenschaft von wohlklingenden oder angenehm zu artikulierenden Lautverbindungen. E. kann Ursache sein für Assimilation, Dissimilation, Vokalharmonie oder Lauteinschub (Epenthese) zur Erleichterung der Aussprache, vergl. z.B. das t in eigentlich sowie in fr. va-t-il? >geht er?<. Im weiteren Sinn zählen auch Alliteration, Assonanz, Lautmalerei (Onomatopoiie) und Rhythmus zur E." (Bußmann 2002:206)
    Bußmannn, H. (Ed.)(2002). Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft (3rd ed. rev.). Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag."
  • 'Cardinal vowel' rdfs:comment "Cardinal vowels are "a set of vowels established and recorded by (Daniel) Jones, to serve as fixed reference points for the description of vowels in any language. Together they define the limits of a space within which vowels can be articulated, and within which a phonetician who has been trained to do so can place any particular vowel that is heard."
    Matthews, P. H. (2014). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199675128.001.0001/acref-9780199675128-e-436?rskey=g8WTy2&result=3"
  • 'Caucasian languages' rdfs:comment "Unter dem Begriff kaukasische Sprachen werden die Sprachen des Kaukasusgebietes zusammengefasst, die dort schon vor der Einwanderung indogermanischer, turkischer und semitischer Bevölkerungsgruppen gesprochen wurden. Es gibt etwa 40 kaukasische Sprachen aus drei Sprachfamilien mit zusammen rund 9 Millionen Sprechern.

  • Lumbu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B44" @en 
  • Luyia rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E30" @en 
  • Kikuriya rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E43" @en 
  • 'Ham Soi' rdfs:comment "Ham Soi is an alternative name for the Nauruan Pidgin English. Present-day Nauruan Pidgin English is a mixture of a Melanesian and Chinese type of Pidgin English.
    Tryon, D.T., Charpentier, J.-M. (2004). Pacific pidgins and creoles: origins growth and development (pp. 18-19). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter."
  • 'Copulative compound' rdfs:comment ""Copulative compounds are compounds in which the individual constituents are equally predicated of the entity to which the compound as a whole refers. Some recent coinages are actor-houseguest, gangster-businessman, host-mediator, explorer-anthropologist, tent-office and Kosher-Cajun." (Olsen 2000:908)
    Olsen, S. (2000). Composition. In G. E.Booij, Ch. Lehmann, J. Mugdan, (Eds.), Morphology: An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation (pp. 897-916). Berlin: de Gruyter."
  • Chimba rdfs:comment "Guthrie: R311" @en 
  • Langi rdfs:comment "Guthrie: F33" @en 
  • Koyo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: C24" @en 
  • 'Latino sine flexione' rdfs:comment "Latino sine flexione ("Latin without inflections"), Interlingua de Academia pro Interlingua (IL de ApI) or Peano’s Interlingua (abbreviated as IL), is an international auxiliary language compiled by the Academia pro Interlingua under chairmanship of the Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932) in 1887-1914. It is a simplified version of Latin, and retains its vocabulary.

  • 'Loan assimilation' rdfs:comment "Nativization of loan words: a partial or total conformation to the phonological, graphical or morphological standards of the receiving language" 
  • Liaison rdfs:comment ""... the phenomenon that final consonants that are lexically marked as expendable (or 'latent') only show up at the surface if the next word starts with a vowel, which allows the consonant to become the onset of the next syllable. This happens to final consonants in inflected verb forms, in preposed adjectives, in plurals of nouns and adjectives, and in several adverbs." (Boersma 2007:1993-1994)
    Boersma, P. (2007). Some listener-oriented accounts of h-aspiré in French. Lingua, 117, 1989-2054."
  • Lingala rdfs:comment "Guthrie: C36d" @en 
  • Linguolabial rdfs:comment ""A few Austronesian languages spoken in Vanuatu have linguo-labials in which the tongue touches the upper lip. V'enen Taut has nasals, stops, and fricatives made in this way." (Ladefoged 2001:140)
    Ladefoged, P. (2001). A Course in Phonetics (4th ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers."
  • Luba-Lulua rdfs:comment "Guthrie: L31" @en 
  • Makua rdfs:comment "Guthrie: P31" @en 
  • Catchword rdfs:comment ""Prägnanter, wertender, oft formelhafte, meist mit Konnotationen aufgeladener Ausdruck (Wort oder Wendung), der im öffentl. Diskurs präsent ist und hohen Bekanntheitsgrad hat." (Glück 2010: 558)
    Glück, H. (2010). Schlagwort. In Glück, H. (Ed.), Metzler Lexikon Sprache (4th ed. rev.)(pp. 588). Stuttgart/Weimar: J.B.Metzler."
  • 'Name inflection' rdfs:comment "Inflection of proper names, brand names, etc." 
  • 'Neutral vowel' rdfs:comment "Also: schwa" @en 
  • 'Nomina agentis' rdfs:comment "A deverbal noun that refers to the agent participant of the action." 
  • 'Passato remoto' rdfs:comment "In Italian, the preterite is called passato remoto (literally "remote past"). It is a past tense that indicates an action taken once and completed far in the past (mangiai, "I ate").
  • 'Passé simple' rdfs:comment "French perfective past" @en 
  • 'Ghost word' rdfs:comment "A word recorded in a dictionary or other reference work which is not actually used.
    Stevenson, A. (Ed.)(2010). Oxford Dictionary of English (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199571123.001.0001/m_en_gb0334110?rskey=wVN88d&result=2
    See also:
    Read, A. W. (1978). The Source of Ghost Words in English. Word, 29 (2), 95-104. DOI: 10.1080/00437956.1978.11435650"
  • 'Phrasal noun' rdfs:comment "Nominalized verb+particle complex." 
  • Présentatif rdfs:comment ""... Formeln, die nicht mehr in ihre Bestandteile zu zerlegen sind und sich somit der rein syntaktischen Analyse entziehen; diese Formeln enthalten aber andererseits noch verbale (flexivische) Elemente, daher können sie auch nicht ohne weiteres der expressiven Syntax zugeordnet werden." (Schiller 1981:6)
    Schiller, A. (1981). Zum Problem des “presentatif” im heutigen Französisch. Arbeitsberichte und wissenschaftliche Studien/ Martin–Luther-Universität, Halle-Wittenberg (Vol. 72)."
  • 'Pronominal adverb' rdfs:comment "A pronominal adverb is a type of adverb occurring in a number of Germanic languages, formed in replacement of a preposition and a pronoun by turning the latter into a locative adverb and the former into a prepositional adverb and joining them in reverse order.
  • Prosodeme rdfs:comment ""Phonologische Einheit, die sich über ein oder mehrere (segmentale) Phoneme erstreckt und daher ein suprasegmentales Merkmal bildet, wie z.B. Akzent, Intonation und Grenzsignal."(Bußmann 2002:542)
    Bußmannn, H. (Ed.)(2002). Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft (3rd ed. rev.). Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag."
  • Queclarative rdfs:comment ""Coined in the 1970s for an utterance which has the form of an interrogative (or ‘question’) but the force of a statement (or ‘declarative’): e.g. ‘What use is that?’, meaning that it is no use."
    Matthews, P. H. (2007). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199202720.001.0001/acref-9780199202720-e-2777

    The term Queclarative was introduced by Jerrold M. Sadock (1974) in "Toward a Linguistic Theory of Speech Act"."
  • Rehilamiento rdfs:comment "Rehilamiento refers to the modification of a voiced palatal lateral continuant with increased friction and/or affrication." @en 
  • Salish rdfs:comment "Die Klassifikation basiert auf dem Vorschlag von Glottolog [Stand: 13.12.2019].

  • 'Samana English' rdfs:comment "Samaná English (SE and SAX) is a variety of the English language spoken by descendants of Black immigrants from the United States who have lived in the Samaná Peninsula, which belongs today to the Dominican Republic.
    The language is variously described a creole language, or a dialect of English. It is similar to that of Caribbean English Creoles spoken by the English speaking Caribbean, especially Turks and Caicos and Bahamian Creole.
  • 'Southern Sotho' rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S33" @en 
  • Shona rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S10" @en 
  • 'Small clause' rdfs:comment "Non-finite clausal structures with an overt "subject".
    Small Clauses consist of a predicate and the overtly expressed argument of that predicate. The predicate is a non-finite verb phrase (a noun phrase, an adjective phrase, or a prepositional phrase).

    Mom went home, [SC her heart heavy].

    Fabricius-Hansen, C. & Haug, D. (Eds.) (2012). Big Events, Small Clauses. The Grammar of Elaboration. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter."
  • Swahili rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G40" @en 
  • Suppletion rdfs:comment "Suppletion "is a relation between two segmental linguistic signs X and Y. Formally, suppletion is a binary relation of the same kind that holds for synonyms or antonyms." "Being in fact a limiting case of irregular alternations, suppletion entails the least iconic (i.e. the most opaque) formal relation between two semantically related signs."(Mel'čuk 2000:510)
    Mel'čuk, I. (2000). Suppletion. In G. E.Booij, Ch. Lehmann, J. Mugdan, (Eds.), Morphology: An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation (pp. 510-522). Berlin: de Gruyter"
  • Tocharian rdfs:comment "„Tocharisch ist die Bezeichnung für zwei verwandte, ausgestorbene indogermanische Sprachen, die durch Dokumente bekannt geworden sind, die man in Oasen nördlich der Taklamakan-Wüste in der westchinesischen Provinz Xinjang (Chinesisch-Turkestan) gefunden hat. Die beiden Sprachen bezeichnet man als Tocharisch A und Tocharisch B, in der deutschen Sprachwissenschaft such als Osttocharisch und Westtocharisch“. (Kausen 2010:507)

    Kausen, Ernst (2010). Die indogermanischen Sprachen von der Vorgeschichte bis zur Gegenwart. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag"
  • Tyrrhenian rdfs:comment "Die tyrsenischen Sprachen (Tyrsenisch, auch Tyrrhenisch), benannt nach den Tyrsenern, sind eine von Helmut Rix (1998) vorgeschlagene Sprachfamilie, bestehend aus der etruskischen Sprache, der rätischen Sprache und der lemnischen Sprache. Rix schätzt für das Alter der hypothetischen Ursprache Proto-Tyrsenisch etwa einen Zeitraum um 1000 v. Chr.

  • 'Unique morpheme' rdfs:comment "Also called "cranberry morpheme"
  • Venetan rdfs:comment "Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,[7] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy, where most of the five million inhabitants can understand it.

  • Venetian rdfs:comment "Sowohl die Einwohner Venetiens als auch die Sprachwissenschaft unterscheiden in der Regel zwischen vèneto (Venetisch), der gesamten Dialektgruppe einschließlich aller lokalen Varietäten, und venesiàn (Venezianisch), der Varietät der Stadt Venedig, die zur Zeit der Republik Venedig als allgemeine Koine diente, heute jedoch nur eine von mehreren bedeutenden Stadtvarietäten innerhalb des Venetischen ist.

  • 'Verba cogitandi' rdfs:comment "Also: mental state verbs, psych verbs" @en 
  • 'Verba contrafactiva' rdfs:comment "E.g., pretend" @en 
  • 'Verba dicendi' rdfs:comment "Also: verbs of speaking, reporting verbs, communication verbs" @en 
  • 'Verba emotiva' rdfs:comment "Also: verbs of emotion" @en 
  • 'Verba dandi' rdfs:comment "Also: verbs of giving" @en 
  • 'Verba accipiendi' rdfs:comment "Also: verbs of receiving" @en 
  • 'Verba privativa' rdfs:comment "Also: verbs of removal" @en 
  • 'Verba putandi' rdfs:comment "E.g., think, believe, know" @en 
  • 'Verba reversativa' rdfs:comment "Also: reversative verbs" @en 
  • Vṛddhi rdfs:comment "Term in Sanskrit grammar for a unit analysed as the combination of a simple vowel or resonant with a preceding double a. One of three degrees of ‘strengthening’: e.g. i is simple or unstrengthened; e (← a+i) is the guṇa form in which it is strengthened by a single a; ai (← ā+i) is the vṛddhi form resulting from a further strengthening."
    Matthews, P. H. (2014). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199675128.001.0001/acref-9780199675128-e-3640?rskey=Aj1nTh&result=1
    See also:
  • Mbede rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B61" @en 
  • Jita rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E25" @en 
  • Bravanese rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G412" @en 
  • Balong rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A13" @en 
  • Giryama rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E72a" @en 
  • Pahārī rdfs:comment "Also: Indo-Aryan Northern zone" @en 
  • 'Helvecian Portuguese' rdfs:comment "A creolized or semicreolized Afro-Portuguese dialect spoken in Helvécia, Bahia." @en 
  • Tharaka rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E54" @en 
  • 'West African Pidgin Portuguese' rdfs:comment "A hypothetical Portuguese-based pidgin spoken across the western coast of Africa between the 14th and 18th centuries, believed by some to be the proto-language of most or all modern creoles.
  • Mesocco rdfs:comment ""Alto-Moesano is a dialect of Alpine Lombard (Northern Italo-Romance) spoken in Mesocco. This village (about 1000 inhabitants) is located in the the upper part of the Mesolcina valley, in the south-western corner of the Swiss Canton Grigioni/Graubünden" (Loporcaro 2006:135)

    Loporcaro, M. (2006). Crossing form and function: first and second person plural imperatives in the dialect of Mesocco. Folia linguistica, 40 (1-2), 135-154."
  • 'Nilo-Saharan languages' rdfs:comment "J. Greenberg (1963) postulierte die genetische Einheit der nilosaharanischen Sprachen. Diese Einheit fasste sämtliche Sprachen zusammen, die nicht zu den anderen drei afrikanischen Phyla Greenbergs - Afroasiatisch, Niger-kongo und Khoisan - gehörten, deswegen sahen viele Afrikanisten das Nilosaharanische zunächst lediglich als eine Restkategorie an. Diese Einschätzung hat sich geändert, sodass zumindest der Kern des Nilosaharanischen heute weitgehend akzeptiert ist. Die Zugehörigkeit von Randeinheiten wie Kadu, Koma, Gumuz, Kuliak und Songhai wird weiter diskutiert. (Kausen 2014)" @de 
  • Sheng rdfs:comment "Sheng is a Swahili and English-based cant, perhaps a mixed language or creole, originating among the urban underclass of Nairobi, Kenya, and influenced by many of the languages spoken there. While primarily a language of urban youths, it has spread across social classes and geographically to neighbouring Tanzania and Uganda.
  • Eton rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A71" @en 
  • Punu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B43" @en 
  • Bubi rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B305" @en 
  • Zinza rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E23" @en 
  • Umbundu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: R11" @en 
  • Kolonialdeutsch rdfs:comment "Kolonial-Deutsch ist eine von dem Kolonialbeamten Emil Schwörer im Jahr 1916 veröffentlichte Plansprache.
    Schwörer entwarf dieses Pidgin für die Kommunikation in Deutsch-Südwestafrika und publizierte eine 62-Seiten umfassende Broschüre mit dem Titel „Vorschläge einer künftigen deutschen Kolonialsprache in systematisch grammatikalischer Darstellung und Begründung“.

  • Lunda rdfs:comment "Guthrie: L52" @en 
  • Tumbuka rdfs:comment "Guthrie: N21" @en 
  • 'Sepik Ramu languages' rdfs:comment "D. Laycock schlug 1973 ein großes Sepik-Ramu-Phylum vor, das die meisten Sprachen im Einzugsgebiet der Flüsse Sepik und Ramu umfast. Neuere Untersuchungen (Foley 2005, Ross 2005) zeigten jedoch, dass sich die Sprachen dieses Gebiets auf drei unabhängige Einheiten verteilen: Sepik, Samu-Untersepik und die kleine Yuat-Familie." @de 
  • 'Exceptive construction' rdfs:comment "For example, but-phrases in English:

    (1) Every student but John attended the meeting.

    or 'free exceptives' with except for:

    (2) Except for John, every student attended the meeting."
  • Duala rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A24" @en 
  • 'Venetic (Paleo-Venetic)' rdfs:comment "Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language. Its exact relationship to other Indo-European languages is still being investigated. Some consider it an Italic language, other Celtic or Germanic." @en 
  • Ndjem rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A84" @en 
  • 'Split topicalization' rdfs:comment ""The phenomenon of Split Topicalization (ST) has been investigated most extensively with respect to Split Noun Phrase Topicalization and Split Verb Phrase Topicalization (SVPT) in German. (...)
    ST gives rise to a split-constituent dependency of the following kind: a constituent's core is extracted to the pre-field while leaving its non-core behind in the middle field of the clause" (Van Hoof 2006:411)

    Van Hoof, H. (2006). Split topicalization. In M. Everaert & H. van Riemsdijk (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Syntax (Vol. IV) (pp. 410-465). Malden, MA/ Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

    Rot Wein habe ich nur französisch.
    'As for red wine, I have only French one.'"
  • Myene rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B11" @en 
  • 'Palmerston English' rdfs:comment "An English-lexifier contact variety spoken on Palmerston Island in the Cook Island in Polynesia; a creoloid, i.e. it resembles creole but did not go through the pidgin state" @en 
  • Nyamwezi rdfs:comment "Guthrie: F22" @en 
  • Ewondo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A72a" @en 
  • Communia rdfs:comment "In his book Myrana und die Weltsprache, Joseph Stemppl presented 1889 the language Myrana. In 1894, Stempfl put forth a different version of Myrana, Communia. Both languages are artificial languages based on Latin." @en 
  • Universal-Latein rdfs:comment "Universal-Latein is an artificial languages based on Latin and developed by Karl Pötzl-Pecelius. Pötzl-Pecelius claims that his language „in der Wortbildung und Formenlehre der natürlichen Weiterentwicklung des Latein in den romanischen Sprachen folget, aber alle die vielen gefürchteten Unregelmäßigkeiten beseitigt, an Stelle der schwierigen lateinischen Syntax die Logik setzt“ (Pötzl-Pecelius 1952:2). The author denies that Universal-Latein is an artificial language.

    Pötzl-Pecelius, K. (1952). Universal-Latein: Organisch vereinfachtes Latein als Weltsprache. Torre-Dorfmeister."
  • 'Differential object marking' rdfs:comment "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_object_marking" 
  • Rungu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: M14" @en 
  • Tonga rdfs:comment "Guthrie: M64" @en 
  • 'Calling contour' rdfs:comment "Also: 'vocative chant' or 'stylised fall'" @en 
  • Lulogooli rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E41" @en 
  • 'Dativus iudicantis' rdfs:comment "Dative of relation or reference" 
  • Kalanga rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S16" @en 
  • Bulu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A74a" @en 
  • Makonde rdfs:comment "Guthrie: P23" @en 
  • Yao rdfs:comment "Guthrie: P21" @en 
  • Vidunda rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G38" @en 
  • Soga rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E16" @en 
  • Mbaama rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B62" @en 
  • 'Nguni languages' rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S40" @en 
  • Pokomo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E71" @en 
  • Pasigraphy rdfs:comment "A pasigraphy is a writing system where each written symbol represents a concept (rather than a word or sound or series of sounds in a spoken language). The aim (as with ordinary numerals 1, 2, 3, etc.) is to be intelligible to persons of all languages.
  • 'Genitive absolute' rdfs:comment "Genitive absolute
  • 'Verba pura' rdfs:comment ""So wie die Lehnwörter aus dem Sprachsystem der Ausgangssprache in das Althochdeutsche übertreten sind, so treten die sogenannten verba pura aus der Gruppe der germanischen starken Verben geschlossen in die 1. Klasse der althochdeutschen schwachen Verben über. Dieser Vorgang vollzieht sich bereits vor Beginn der Überlieferung des Althochdeutschen. Die verba pura des Germanischen sind folglich nicht von anderen Lexemen abgeleitet und in diesem Sinne primäre, nicht abgeleitete Verben. Sie bilden daher innerhalb der schwachen jan-Verben des Althochdeutschen eine Sondergruppe." (Riecke 1996:145)
    Riecke, J. (1996). Die schwachen jan-Verben des Althochdeutschen: ein Gliederungsversuch. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht."
  • 'Split question' rdfs:comment "In a split question (SQ), a wh-part is followed by a tag, as illustrated in the following Spanish example:

    Que arbol planto Juan, un roble?
    what tree planted Juan an oak
    ‘What tree did Juan plant, an oak?’

    Arregi, K. (2010). Ellipsis in split questions. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 28(3), 539-592."
  • Kamba rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E55" @en 
  • Lozi rdfs:comment "Guthrie: K21" @en 
  • 'Afro-Bolivian Spanish' rdfs:comment "“Afro-Bolivian Spanish (ABS, also known as Yungueño Spanish or Afro-Yungueño
    Spanish) is an Afro-Hispanic vernacular spoken in Los Yungas, Department of La
    Paz, Bolivia.“ (Sessarego 2013:363)

    Sessarego, Sandro (2013). On the non-creole basis for Afro-Bolivian Spanish. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 28 (2), 363-407."
  • Luimbi rdfs:comment "Guthrie: K12a" @en 
  • Mbwela rdfs:comment "Guthrie: K17" @en 
  • Ardano rdfs:comment "Ardano was created by Zeinelabidin Elhassi." @en 
  • Dousha rdfs:comment "Dousha dates from 2002 and was created by Almir U. Junior from Brazil. Its creator describes it as an agglunative language, developed from the Japanese grammar and with an assorted group of vocabulary sources." @en 
  • Dunia rdfs:comment "The design of Dunia is based on the recognition that all previous proposals for a world auxiliary language have either been entirely oriented towards Europe and the West for their grammar and lexical material, or if they did have a wider outlook in their design, they were so difficult that they pleased nobody.
    Dunia draws its grammar and lexical material from the most widely spoken languages throughout the world, for example: Chinese, Hindi/Urdu, Spanish/Portuguese, English, Malay/Indonesian, Arabic, Russian, Japanese, and German.
    Creator: Ed Robertson

  • Esperadunye rdfs:comment "Dana Nutter has created several artificial languages, one of which is Esperadunye. The creator describes it as Esperanto relexified with a mixed vocabulary from major world languages rather than just European ones, and some grammatical reforms which make the language more isolating to accommodate a wider range of speaking habits.

  • Pasifika rdfs:comment "Pasifika is a language designed by Danan Nutter. It is designed to be an auxiliary language for regional use around the Pacific Rim by drawing from the major languages of East Asia, Western Americas, Australia, Indonesia, and other parts of Oceania: Malay-Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Javanese, Mandarin, Spanish, English, Wu, and Cantonese, but also adding small influences from less popular languages such as Tagalog, Ilocano, Thai, Quechua, Aymara, Maori and Hawaiian.

  • Euransi rdfs:comment "Euransi was designed between 1998 and 2002 by Libor Sztemon of the Czech Republic.

  • Jigwa rdfs:comment "Jigwa was an attempt to create an international auxiliary language avoiding the "Euro-centrism" in language design." @en 
  • Konya rdfs:comment "Konya is an international auxiliary language designed by Larry Sulky with influences from Japanese, English, Romance, Mandarin, and Indonesian." @en 
  • Ilomi rdfs:comment "Ilomi is an international auxiliary language designed by Larry Sulky. It can be seen as a development of Konya with additional Malayo-Polynesian influence. Ilomi borrows its words from a great many languages, but the morphological rules of Ilomi tend to render words less recognizable.

  • Kosmo rdfs:comment "Le Kosmo (Schröder) est une idéolangue créée en 1949 par G. Schröder. Langue grandement influencée par le japonais et le suédois.

  • Kumiko rdfs:comment "Kumiko was created by Ming Tang in 2010 and is a logical language of the type of Loglan and Lojban. The syllable structure is based on Japanese; main source languages for the vocabulary are Chinese, Japanese and English." @en 
  • 'Lingwa de Planeta' rdfs:comment "Lingwa de Planeta (Lidepla) is a neutral international auxiliary language based on the most widely spoken languages of the world, including English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Russian, Hindi, Arabic, and Persian. We attach much importance to psychology: elements of one's own native language in a constructed language evoke positive emotions and increase greatly one's motivation to learn it. And we hope that the bulk of the planet's population may perceive Lidepla not only as neutral, but as a common language with a certain smack of their native tongues.

  • 'Neo Patwa' rdfs:comment "Neo Patwa is a pidgin-like international language that is used by people around the world to communicate when they do not share a common language.
    The vocabulary is small but versatile. And the words appear to be chosen from real languages, such as English, Chinese, Hindi, Swahili, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, Indonesian, Korean, and Japanese.
    Creator: Jens Wilkinson

  • NOXILO rdfs:comment "NOXILO (pronounced 'NOSHILO') is a truly equal and easy-to-use international auxilliary language, which was made in Japan for Asians, Europeans, Africans, and North/South Americans. Unlike most other international auxilliary languages, NOXILO allows most users (American, Brazilian, Chinese, French, German, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Malaysian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, etc.) to write and speak in the word order of their native tongue or at least in a similar word order.
    Creator: Sentaro Mizuta

  • Olingo rdfs:comment "Olingo was designed by R. Stewart Jaque, who writes that this language “is basically Neo-Latin and Anglo-Saxon with roots and words selected from all of the major languages of both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.” (Jaque 1944:24)
    R. Jaque (1944). One language. Santa Barbara, CA: J. F. Rowny Press."
  • Pan-kel rdfs:comment "Pan-kel is an artificial language of the mixed type, i.e., made up of both a priori material and material taken from one or more natural languages. Its designer was Max Wald of Gross-Beeren. One of Wald’s concerns was with the brevity of words: „Für pan-kel sind aus allen Kultursprachen die kürzesten Wörter mit möglichster Vermeidung von Verstümmelung entnommen worden. Weil das Englische am verbreitetsten ist, so muss auch der Wortschatz hauptsächlich dem Englischen entliehen werden, danach kommt dann das Deutsche und das Französische in Betracht. Doch finden Vertreter anderer Völker auch eine Menge Wörter in pan-kel, die völlig mit ihrer Muttersprache übereinstimmen.“ (Wald 1909:11)

    M. Wald (1909). Pan-kel, leichteste Kurzsprache für den Weltverkehr. Gross-Beeren: Selbstverlag"
  • Sambahsa-mundialect rdfs:comment "Sambahsa-mundialect is an international auxiliary language created by Olivier Simon. It was first released on the Net in July 2007. Sambahsa-mundialect (Sambahsa from sam (same) and bahsa (language); mundialect is a fusion between mundial and dialect) is a mixture of reconstructed language and auxlang, drawing vocabulary and grammar from Indo-European as modified based on common modern usage. It also has words from outside Indo-European.

  • Sona rdfs:comment "Sona is a worldlang created by Kenneth Searight and described in a book he published in 1935. The word Sona in the language itself means "auxiliary neutral thing", but the name was also chosen to echo "sonority" or "sound".
    Searight created Sona as a response to the Eurocentricity of other artificial auxiliary languages of his time, such as Esperanto and Ido. At the same time, Searight intended his language to be more practical than most a priori languages like Solresol or Ro, which were intended to be unbiased by any particular group of natural languages.

    K. Searight (1935). Sona. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
  • Unish rdfs:comment "Unish is a constructed language developed by a research team at Sejong University, Korea. The term “Unish” is used in reference to it being cast as a universal language in the globalized era.
    The vocabulary of Unish is chosen from among 15 languages: Esperanto and 14 major languages that have 70 million or more native speakers or which were international languages in the past. Decisions are based on the three principles of commonality, short-word length, and simplicity. Consequently, the core vocabulary of Unish is integrated with the simplest words of existing major languages. To date, Unish has a vocabulary of approximately 10,000 words. Sejong University has also offered Unish classes for several years.

  • Hehe rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G62" @en 
  • Haya rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E22" @en 
  • Sumbwa rdfs:comment "Guthrie: F23" @en 
  • 'Dativus finalis' rdfs:comment "Dative of purpose" 
  • Subiya-Totela rdfs:comment "Guthrie: K40" @en 
  • Nyambo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E21" @en 
  • 'Yanzi languages' rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B80" @en 
  • 'Argument sharing' rdfs:comment ""An observation that goes back to Stewart (1963) is that overt objects in serial constructions are semantically related to both verbs, i. e., the verbs share their internal arguments." (Muysken & Veenstra 2006:260)
    Muysken, P. & Veenstra, T. (2006). Serial verbs. In M. Everaert & H. van Riemsdijk (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Syntax (Vol. IV) (pp. 234-270). Malden, MA/ Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
    see also
    Stewart, J. M. (1963). Some restrictions on objects in Twi. Journal of African Languages, 2, 145-149."
  • Nyakyusa-Ngonde rdfs:comment "Guthrie: M31" @en 
  • Nsenga rdfs:comment "Guthrie: N41" @en 
  • Lubukusu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E31c" @en 
  • Shambala rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G23" @en 
  • Ding rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B86" @en 
  • 'Teke languages' rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B70" @en 
  • 'Big mess construction' rdfs:comment "The so-called Big Mess Construction (e.g. so prominent a punctuation), introduced by a limited set of degree words, places an adjectival expression in the predeterminer position. The term goes back to Berman (1974).

    Berman, A. (1974). Adjectives and adjective complement constructions in English. PhD dissertation, Harvard University.

    Jong-Bok, K. & Sells, P. (2011). The Big Mess Construction: interactions between the lexicon and constructions. English Language and Linguistics, 15, 335-362. doi:10.1017/S1360674311000062"
  • Hema rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E121" @en 
  • Kagulu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G12" @en 
  • Meru rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E53" @en 
  • Chichonyi-Chidzihana-Chikauma rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E72c" @en 
  • 'Echo phonology' rdfs:comment "These are a set of mouth actions unrelated to spoken language, and which occur obligatorily in a number of sign languages alongside certain manual signs. They are characterized by “echoing” on the mouth certain of the articulatory activities of the hands.
    Woll, B. (2014). Moving from hand to mouth: echo phonology and the origins of language. Front Psychol, 5, Article 662."
  • Mbugwe rdfs:comment "Guthrie: F34" @en 
  • Ndengereko rdfs:comment "Guthrie: P11" @en 
  • Mongo-Nkundu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: C61" @en 
  • Tetela rdfs:comment "Guthrie: C71" @en 
  • Ntomba rdfs:comment "Guthrie: C35a" @en 
  • Bushoong rdfs:comment "Guthrie: C83" @en 
  • 'Hybrid noun' rdfs:comment ""Hybrid nouns, nouns which induce different agreements according to the target, have been described in various languages. (...) There is clear evidence that hybrids vary considerably in the agreement they control, even within a single language. It therefore seems logical to align this variability with lexical semantics, and this is convincing for some hybrids. But this motivation is hard to reconcile with the fact that some hybrids are hybrids only for part of their paradigm." (Corbett 2015:191)
    Corbett, G. G. (2015). Hybrid nouns and their complexity. In J. Fleischer, E. Rieken, & P. Widmer (Eds.), Agreement from a Diachronic Perspective (pp. 191-214). Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter."
  • 'Inflected infinitive' rdfs:comment ""The Portuguese inflected infinitive (PII) is a unique form of infinitive. An (uninflected) infinitive is not marked for person or tense ([-TENSE, -AGR]), but an inflected infinitive has orthographic inflection that allows for person (and number) agreement, and is marked [-TENSE, +AGR]. The inflected infinitive also allows for the optional inclusion of a lexical subject in the infinitival phrase. The inflected infinitive is relatively rare. It has been found in a handful of other languages; according to Scida (2005), the inflected infinitive exists or existed in Galician, Sardinian, Old Neapolitan, Old Leonese, and Mirandese. Additionally, the inflected infinitive exists in Hungarian (Kiss 2002) and existed in Old English (Lass 1994)." (Harris 2013:303)
    Harris, M. (2013). The origin of the Portuguese inflected infinitive through a corpus analysis. In J. Cabrelli Amaro, G. Lord, A. de Prada Pérez, & J. E. Aaron (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 16th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 303-311). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project."
  • Jalaa rdfs:comment "African language isolate" 
  • Akoose rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A15C" @en 
  • Kpe rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A22" @en 
  • Sira rdfs:comment "Guthrie: B41" @en 
  • Matumbi rdfs:comment "Guthrie: P13" @en 
  • 'Oghur languages' rdfs:comment "Also: Bulgar or Lir-Turkic" @en 
  • Basaá rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A43" @en 
  • 'Tugu Creole Portuguese' rdfs:comment "About Mardijker Creole (spoken in the village and suburbs of Tugu up to 1940):
    Mardijker is an extinct Portuguese-based creole of Jakarta. It was introduced with the Dutch settlement of Batavia; the Dutch brought in slaves from the colonies they had recently acquired from the Portuguese, and the slaves' Portuguese creole became the lingua franca of the new city.
  • Sukuma rdfs:comment "Guthrie: F21" @en 
  • Tuki rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A601" @en 
  • Ndamba rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G52" @en 
  • Matengo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: N13" @en 
  • Luyana rdfs:comment "Guthrie: K30" @en 
  • Nathembo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: P312" @en 
  • Oshiwambo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: R21" @en 
  • Ikoma-Nata-Isenye rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E45" @en 
  • Ekegusii rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E42" @en 
  • Birwa rdfs:comment "Guthrie: S32" @en 
  • Mushungulu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G311" @en 
  • Zigula rdfs:comment "Guthrie: G31" @en 
  • Lega-Holoholo rdfs:comment "Guthrie: D20" @en 
  • Bubi-Benga rdfs:comment "Guthrie: A30" @en 
  • Kimbundu rdfs:comment "Guthrie: H21" @en 
  • Valyrian rdfs:comment "The Valyrian languages are a fictional language family in the A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels by George R. R. Martin, and in their television adaptation Game of Thrones.

    In the novels, High Valyrian and its descendant languages are often mentioned but not developed beyond a few words. For the TV series, linguist David J. Peterson created the High Valyrian language, as well as the derivative languages Astapori and Meereenese Valyrian, based on the fragments given in the novels.

  • Tooro rdfs:comment "Guthrie: E12" @en 
  • rdfs:comment "The BLL Ontology is based on the original thesaurus of the Bibliography of Linguistic Literature (BLL). In order to develop a consistent representation of the domain terminology, the BLL Thesaurus was remodeled by means of rigidly applying OWL/DL constraints." @en